Influencia del Socialismo en el Cine — Michelle Anleu

Imágenes usadas con fines ilustrativos. Escrito por Michelle Anleu. Muchas han sido las sociedades que han tratado de seguir los principios del socialismo, son pocas las que han logrado establecer los ideales de este sistema socio-económico hasta la raíz, trazando cambios profundos que marcaron la historia. En la actualidad, la palabra socialismo evoca un […]

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Influencia del Socialismo en el Cine

Influencia del Socialismo en el Cine

 

Imágenes usadas con fines ilustrativos.
Escrito por Michelle Anleu.

Muchas han sido las sociedades que han tratado de seguir los principios del socialismo,  son pocas las que han logrado establecer los ideales de este sistema socio-económico hasta la raíz, trazando cambios profundos que marcaron la historia. En la actualidad, la palabra socialismo evoca un significado e interpretación , distinto al de la época en que se comenzó a desarrollar. Las ideas del socialismo se originan tiempo atrás, por la necesidad del hombre por buscar  igualdad y justicia.Una sociedad utópica 3. o en donde los elementos que conforman una sociedad trabajan de forma que todo parece ser  perfecto, es uno de los argumentos que volvieron al socialismo persuasivo y la solución ideal a los obstáculos que amenazan al hombre.

Robert Owen fue uno de los primeros en desarrollar las bases del socialismo,  siendo uno de los pioneros en experimentar con esas ideas. Tiempo después, surge el mayor influyente de las ideas del socialismo, Karl Marx, quien decía que el socialismo era inevitable y que el capitalismo terminaría colapsando debido a que era un sistema de explotación en donde la clase trabajadora no obtenía beneficios y se estaba volviendo cada vez más pobre, porque la riqueza se concentraba en la menor parte de la población.1. (Heaven on Earth).Por ello el socialismo prometía la abolición de las clases sociales, distribuir los recursos para satisfacer las necesidades de todos dando resultado a la igualdad.6. Uno de los grandes líderes de la historia, Vladímir Lenin, prestó mucha atención a las ideas de Marx, y fue él quien aplicó y modificó las ideas del socialismo para promover movimientos que marcaron a fondo la sociedad en Rusia.

Hay una frase de Lenin que adquirió mucha fama, con respecto al arte, el cual se estaba desarrollando en una época de crisis social. “De todas las artes, el cine es para nosotros la más importante”, es la frase que solía decir el revolucionario ruso cuando logró establecer su poder en Rusia.4. (Russia Beyond, 2015). Es difícil entender como el cine logró triunfar como arte durante una época en donde hubiese sido más sencillo frecuentar óperas, o apreciar pinturas, que ver películas que expresarán un mensaje que podría afectar la imagen y reputación de un gobierno socialista que era estricto y extremista como el de Lenin. Pero para poder entender el contexto por el cual es probable que Lenin hiciera tal afirmación sobre el cine, hay que conocer los pasos que lo llevaron a establecer sus ideales de forma duradera y trascendental en Rusia. Y es en Rusia, en donde nos adentraremos específicamente, sobre cómo las ideas socialistas influyeron en el cine, así como también, bajo circunstancias similares se vieron afectados otro países como Alemania, Francia y China, en dónde los artistas también manifestaron los cambios sociales que estaban sufriendo a través del cine.

Vladímir Lenin fue la mente maestra que orquestó el  comienzo de una época difícil para los rusos. Fue gracias a su determinación y su movimiento como un dedicado revolucionario que dirigió a Rusia a través del sistema del socialismo y fue a través de la propaganda que logró ganarse al pueblo ruso. Él lideró la Revolución Bolchevique, que jugó su papel más importante en 1917, cuando Lenin tomó lugar al frente  y comenzó a expandir sus ideas socialistas para cambiar la sociedad, y ante todo modificando completamente estos principios para usarlos de manera que su poder e influencia terminaron dejando una profusión de muertes.Durante este tiempo, los bancos, iglesias e industrias comerciales en el país fueron destruidas, a pesar de esto la economía de Rusia se convirtió en una de las más potentes, a pesar de que la población sufriera y se encontrará constantemente reprimida.1. (Heaven on Earth). Aunque años después, cerca de 1920 la economía e industria sufrieron un declive, la industria del cine en Rusia se nacionalizó. La creación de estudios de cine se expandió por varios territorios de la población, creando sitios dedicados a producir cine como Lenfilm y Mosfilm. Inclusive, una década después, en los años treinta el cine ruso fue uno de los primeros en adquirir sonido en sus filmes.2.(Rusopedia). Era importante para los revolucionarios explotar los recursos disponibles para alentar la propaganda de sus ideales socialistas a través del cine, ya que éste era un medio inmediato de comunicación factible.

Dependiendo del contexto en el que se encuentra, es que a través de su versatilidad, el cine se adapta a las manifestaciones de sus artistas. En ese caso, el cine se topó con una época de cambios sociales controversiales en donde las personas comenzaron a sentir la necesidad de expresar tanto su apoyo como también su descontento hacia lo que estaba pasando, precisamente el surgimiento de una sociedad socialista. El más claro ejemplo que pueda tener Rusia de ese despertar artístico, es el nombre de Sergei Eisenstein, reconocido mundialmente por los conocedores de cine, como también en Rusia por sus obras de impacto.Él mismo Eisenstein perteneció al movimiento de la Revolución Bolchevique, destacando por sus proyectos de  propaganda.5. (Sommerlad,J, 2018). Sin embargo,Acorazado Potemkin (1925) es una de las obras que más ha deslumbrado en la historia del cine.Tanto como por aportar nuevas técnicas visuales, como por su mensaje social.4. (Tokmasheva,M.,2015). Está película catapultó a Eisenstein como uno de los grandes genios del cine.Acorazado refleja a través de sus montajes, tomas y técnicas , la cruda y cruel condición humana por la que pasaban los marineros, resaltando la repulsiva comida en mal estado que tenían que comer los hombres, reforzando la realidad que se vivía durante la revolución, y transmitiendo al espectador una reacción de empatía y conmoción. Está película refleja no sólo las consecuencias que el hombre estaba sufriendo por los movimientos revolucionarios, pero literalmente también estaba exponiendo las técnicas visuales que estaban revolucionando el lenguaje cinematográfico.

Para reconocer la influencia que el socialismo tuvo en el cine, no existe más claro exponente que el desarrollo que atravesó el cine durante esta época en Rusia. Un país en donde el socialismo marcó fuertemente a la sociedad, influido por uno de sus principales motores, que fue Lenin, y que a pesar de que a través de su tan imponente autoridad, provocó miles de muertes, también impulsó el crecimiento de la industria cinematográfica. Aunque es preciso resaltar, que el cine se vio influido por su propósito y función para promover la propaganda del gobierno, y seguir de esa forma sosteniendo sus convicciones ante la población rusa, fue por el sufrimiento y las reacciones de los artistas rusos que está época fue una de las más progresivas para el cine.Es el caso, del reconocido Eisenstein, quien marcó para siempre el lenguaje cinematográfico usado hasta el día de hoy, quién extendió su conocimiento, y ante todo proyecto a través de sus obras de cine, la historia del hombre bajo las opresiones de un gobierno revolucionario, con principios socialistas, que al fin de cuentas no prometieron una utopía en la tierra, sino que por el contrario un infierno. A pesar de haber sido un período duro principalmente para Rusia, no hubiera sido posible que sin enfrentarse a la adversidad, los artistas y cineastas hubieran podido crear técnicas que han permitido al cine estar dónde está actualmente. Es necesario valorar que los individuos que experimentaron vivir en una sociedad socialista, no sólo marcaron la historia, pero también revolucionaron la historia de la cinematografía.

Fuentes de Consulta:

  1. (s.f) Heaven on Earth. The Rise and Fall of Socialism. Recuperado el 11 de Febrero de 2018 de: http://www.heavenonearthdocumentary.com/transcript.html#1_2
  2. (s.f) Rusopedia. Historia Cine Ruso. Recuperado el 11 de Febrero de 2018 de : http://rusopedia.rt.com/cultura/cine/issue_109.html
  3.  (s.f)Concepto de Socialismo. Equipo de Redacción de Concepto de Socialismo. Recuperado el 11 de Febrero de 2018 de:http://concepto.de/socialismo/
  4.  Tokmasheva,M.(29 de Diciembre de 2015) Russia Beyond.Recuperado el 11 de Febrero de 2018 de: https://es.rbth.com/cultura/teatro/2015/12/29/el-acorazado-potemkin-la-pelicula-que-cambio-el-cine_555767 
  5.  Sommerlad,J.(22 de Enero de 2018)Recuperado el 11 de Febrero de 2018 de: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/sergei-eisenstein-anniversary-battleship-potemkin-alexander-nevsky-soviet-cinema-joseph-stalin-a8171911.html
  6.   (s.f) Características de Socialismo. Recuperado el 11 de Febrero de 2018 de: https://www.caracteristicas.co/socialismo/Imágenes utilizadas con fines ilustrativos.

Heaven´s Celebration of a Life taken by Death

“An empty conch with its smell of death that whispers in my ear the promise of a life beyond”-  Reena Prasad.Every time the word “Death” is spoken out loud, it rumbles with the strength of a thunder in my ear. The sound of the word “Death” is so imposing it makes me deaf, not making me  able to hear the negative things of it , but to feel the bright side of death. By the way this word has an impact in me, you might be thinking that I´m petrified of it, on the contrary I´m not threatened by the idea of death. Instead of making me think of all the bad things that come along with death, to hear the word makes me think of all the valuable aspects that can come out of a situation like death. To hear the word “Death” gets me in silence, in an instant state of reflection about life, and how short it is. It is frightening the idea of losing my beloved ones, like family , that topic starts me into tears. What I´m not afraid is about my own death, because I have gotten to a point where I can understand what it represents.

Buddhism and Christianity have both played a significant role in the development of my personal beliefs. I can recognize that Buddhism has been the one that has helped me understand more the topic of death. According to the tibetan buddhist tradition, death is a symbol of the journey of life and it’s precious value. Also they believe that by knowing and understanding the process of death, the suffering of it will vanish, and eventually its acceptance will come.  Yet, I don’t believe in rebirth, and that is when it comes Christianity. The main reason why I feel calmed about death is because I consider it to be a journey back home, to the house of angels, a place with unmeasurable love, known as Heaven. I´m in love with angels, and how they work in magical ways to act in the name of God, so the thought of dying makes me think of going to Heaven where there is a  celebration because I had the chance of transforming myself into an angel too.

Fear of death can be surpassed by the understanding of it, because we fear what we                             don´t understand. My life is deeply influenced by a fusion of Buddhism and Christianity, as I don’t believe entirely in everything they proclaim, I have taken the best out of both worlds, to conform my own personal perception of how I see the world. Death is a reminder to me of how relevant it is to live a happy life. When death comes it will be a reward of the meaningful actions you did alive, because the happiness will continue with more joy in Heaven, where there will be no trace of a body , but the print of an existence worth of love.  

 

Writing Activity: Leader in Me gave me a New Approach

To follow a moral compass is something that has been imposed to man throughout the evolution of society. Having values, and being a person that takes decisions based on ethics is a social requirement, that make people believe they will achieve success. For many years in school we were taught a value each month, for example honesty and respect. Even though it is basic to have the knowledge of what those values mean,it is also important to know how to put them into practice. It was until high school that as students, we understood that taking those moral principles into actions was the best way in which we could learn to  use them for the rest of our lives. The “Leader in Me” program changed completely our perspective on the things a person should do in order to become successful, instead the program started by making us believe that we are already leaders in certain aspects of our lives, we just need to dig a little deeper to make our qualities shine brighter. Leader in Me is based on seven main habits that serve as a guide to obtain not only success, but also the capacity of being able to lead our own lives.

 

Walt Disney, one of the most successful people who was the founder of Disneyland once said: “You can design and create, and build the most wonderful place in the world. But it takes people to make the dream a reality.” Walt wasn’t always ahead of the game. Walt had a devotion for drawing , and every day he woke up eager to go to his studio, he was a leader in art and animation. Even though he become an ambulance driver and went through many odd jobs , he fought for a big dream.He stayed up until late to do work, was proactive, and didn’t procrastinate. Walt thought and took into consideration others thoughts. Hollywood parties where not a priority to Walt, he put the most important things first, and on weekends, his time was family time.  Walt Disney had  many failures but he also had many successes too, and that is because he  believed in his own leadership to pursue a dream.  He is a great inspiration to people, because he was a leader that cultivated healthy habits, and use them as a tool to accomplish his goals.

 

Like every dreamer , one of the top frustrations , if not the worse, is facing fear!!! This feeling can affect your decisions in many ways and can determine if you pursuit your goals or not. One of the most outstanding animators and businessmen in history, like I already mention was Walt Disney. Walt is an example of the use of the seven habits of “The Leader in Me” program, to achieve self- realization and make a dream come true. My biggest dream is to become a well-known filmmaker and perhaps one day to even get to work on Disney movies. Now that I know the program I have realized that one of the main reasons why I experienced fear, is because I didn’t have a clue of how successful people achieve things. With “Leader in Me”, I developed a new approach of how I´m going to obtain what I want,  because the program gave me a guide and structure to become highly effective.

 

The Leader in Me program showed me the seven habits to help me establish goals and obtain results. The Habit 3- “Put First Things First”, helped me  to prioritize important things, and to do them before anything else. Before putting into practice that habit I use to procrastinate a lot,now I manage my time wisely and do my homework without taking naps. Also the Habit 7- “Sharpen the Saw”, has made me not to focus on the academic aspect as the most important thing of my life, but also I have given dedication to personal, emotional, and social factors equal importance, and in that way I have obtained more balance. When I was around 15 years old, I had the opportunity to become the president of Interact Guatemala Norte, which is part of Rotary International, which is meant to be a group that offers social service and help to the community. This taught me to care for others, and to work in group to obtain benefits for our society.

 

Overall I can acknowledge that “The Leader In Me” program has been a tool for me to get to know me better, which are my weakness and strengths. Now that I apply the seven habits to the various aspects of my life, I can feel a sense of realization and well-being because I have become an effective person. Also my perspective of certain things have also changed , because now I’m more conscious of the journey I’m taking to accomplish my dream of being a filmmaker, and how decisions will influence the overall result of my goals.  I’m the leader who is in control of the ship I like to call life, and “Leader in Me” has been the program that has made me growth into a better person. This program has had such a big influence in my life, that now I feel more happy with the way my life is. I use  the habits to become a better person, with a new focus on the things I really want,with an end in mind. It also made me a person with more knowledge, and consciousness of how my actions affect society. Because of the program I consider myself a better human being, not only with principles but also with the leadership to inspire others to create the life they want to live by showing them the experience I had with Leader in Me.

Macbeth´s Sonnet Act I Shakespearean

a                  The future holds in mind a big perhaps.

b                   In past I fought and won the rebels.

a                   Can’t trust the future, laying in his traps,

b                   Thoughts of the power provoke in me excels.

 

c                      What lies beyond our days, has price to pay,

d                      Me going through the trouble of killing,

c                      In order for the title to display,

d                      To a crime of blood I must be willing.

 

e                        Shall I choose to listen to Banquo´s declines?

f                        Perhaps my plan to kill must I deny,

e                        As regret may hunt me in near times.

f                         In the requests of  ambition I rely.

 

g                         The chance to be king in my future stands,

g                         Yet, my fate remains in my wife’s demands.

Macbeth Critique

Certainly there must be a reason why Shakespeare is the most acclaimed writer of English language. His melodic dramas recognize him as one of the top artists of universal literature, however,in some occasion’s I find his drama overwhelming. Shakespeare makes the use of many metaphorical devices, and analogies, that make the reader to not completely  understand what he is trying to refer to. As Macbeth character, I believe Shakespeare is sometimes too ambitious trying to embellish his drama with too many literary devices, that  eventually make the reader to get lost, and feel bored by the excess of drama. Lady Macbeth is another aspect that I didn’t find enjoyable, she is annoying. I consider Lady Macbeth one of the things I dislike about society, as she can represent the peer pressure that forces good people to do bad things. It is clear that Macbeth´s ambition would have taken him far in his decision of killing the king, yet the pressure, and the instigation she uses against his husband to push him and do something bad makes me feel angry at her, and also towards Macbeth for not having a voice of his own. Lady Macbeth even manipulates her husband to kill the king by calling him  coward and weak, and in that way she knew how to encourage Macbeth to do the dirty job.

The portrayal of how humans are afraid of destiny is one of the things I liked the most about Shakespeare’s work in Macbeth. He exemplified in a ironical and dramatic way, the fear that we all have of destiny. When the three witches appear and tell Macbeth and Banquo their prophecies, they both become afraid of them, so they laugh with silness. Why laugh at something serious like  their future? Because they are scared of what is next to come. It is a feeling we all humans have experienced at least once in a lifetime, and that makes it relatable. Another aspect that I liked about Macbeth is how he managed to kill the biggest authority ,which was King Duncan of Scotland , in order to fulfill and satisfy  his own ambition of him becoming the king. I enjoy the fact that Shakespeare´s work makes me think and relate Macbeth’s story to nowadays situations. In the same way Macbeth´s ambition brought to light his evil side to obtain power, in  similar manner many politicians become corrupt and dishonorable to get to the top positions in government.

Even though the overload of drama in Macbeth makes it unrelieved, it still continues demonstrating why Shakespeare is a master of literature.  I will recommend this brilliant piece to adults. Adults who tend to evade morality, in hopes of achieving things faster, like corrupt politicians. Macbeth truly illustrates the dark side of man and it´s actions to obtain something. It is a story that inspires reflection of how nowadays society is identifiable to the one presented in Macbeth.

Donatello´s influence on Renaissance art and sculpture techniques.

Donato di Niccolo di Betto better known as Donatello was an Italian sculptor and one of the most influential artists of the 15th century, during the early Renaissance period, were culture was born again and began to take a bigger emphasis on the great classics.It is speculated that he was born around 1386, in the city of Florence, and in 1466 he died being eighty years old. The nickname “Donatello” was given to him by his family and friends. Being twenty years old , he began to practice and began to adopt a Gothic style into his work. Donatello’s techniques in sculpture were unique in style, and are imitated nowadays by sculptors.He also persuit a big interest in Roman ruins, and in the process of studying he developed a humanist point of view. During his life, he never got married, and had no children. In Florence he owned a shop, where he exposed his sculptures. Even the city gave the funds to Donatello for his famous sculpture of David. Part of his point of view was a realistic approach of life, that made him hard to work with other artists and people of that time.

Having the opportunity to learn and receive education in the house of the Martellis, which were a Florentine influential family, made Donatello have a first encounter with art. Part of his education in there was the fabrication of certain elements and metals. Supposedly, part of his learning on Rome ruins, was a trip he made to Rome to study classical art with his close friend, and also artist Filippo Brunelleschi. The majority of his masterpieces are “Magdalen and Angel with Tambourine”, “St. Peter”,”Herod’s Feast”, and of course the sculpture of David, which was a boy dressed with a hat and boots, and is well known for being a Bible hero. This precise statute is recognized for his proportions, and constructed with bronze. It is even said that the powerful Medici family took this sculpture and place it in the center of their palace.

The David made of bronze is without doubt my favorite work of Donatello, because it is a sculpture of its own, since I have never seen a work with such well made details, that made me think the sculpture is very real. Perhaps it is his realistic perspective on life, that made Donatello be so precise and take every detail into consideration, and then transmitted into  a structure that made it look with a touch of realism. Donatello´s understanding and view of classical elements of art made his works be simple, but with a  personal technique that translated into embellishing sculptures.  I like Donatello´s simplicity in his masterpieces, however in that simplicity I find that there is a more profound and passionate artist that reflected that into very very detailed techniques in his sculptures.  Also part of my appreciation of Donatello’s art is his use of marble and bronze, which I consider are two elegant  materials to work with, because you can see details and expressions more clearly and vivid.  In the sculpture of David, Donatello was courageous and followed his knowledge and used classical aspects, and made this sculpture  half naked, emblematic  and influential during the Renaissance period.

donatelo                                                                                     donatelo 2

References:

Andrew. (n.d.)Retrieved March 15th of 2017 from http://www.yesnet.yk.ca/schools/projects/renaissance/donatello.html

(n.d.) Retrieved March 15th of 2017 from  http://www.artble.com/artists/donatello

“Donatello.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved March 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/donatello

Images have been  used for illustrative purposes.